Traditionally, how did nordic countries dealt with food supply in a climate so cold and dark before the 20th century where modern food pr…

Scandinavia has a short, but extremely intense growing season, with a long winter interrupted by a short summer, but with extremely long days. This means nearly all foods would have to be preserved in some way. Traditionally, the foods of Sweden have centered around grains (mostly rye), pork, fish, cabbage, edible roots (turnips and swedes early on, carrots, beetroots and potatoes later) and various fruits.
Salting: Pack something in enough salt, and the salt will draw out moisture, giving you a dry product that will last forever.
Drying: As was mentioned, Scandinavia's cold, dry climate makes drying easy. Also, bread was baked until dry and hard, and stored hanging from the ceiling of your home.
Fermenting: If you use too little salt when salting, you will not make the environment dry enough to kill the bacteria responsible for malolactic fermentation. However, these bacteria will produce lactic acid, which in turn will make the environment unlivable for other bacteria and microbes. Foods preserved like this include brined pickles, sauerkraut and the infamous Swedish Surströmming.
Pickling: Acetic acid or vinegar can preserve vegetables and fish by increasing acidity. This is recent, though.
Smoking: Hanging meat or fish in woodsmoke will kill all microbes, and preserve it  well.
Traditional foods were nearly always boiled, whether they were porridges of various kinds, soups or stews.

Answer by Arvid Frykman:

Scandinavia has a short, but extremely intense growing season, with a long winter interrupted by a short summer, but with extremely long days. This means nearly all foods would have to be preserved in some way. Traditionally, the foods of Sweden have centered around grains (mostly rye), pork, fish, cabbage, edible roots (turnips and swedes early on, carrots, beetroots and potatoes later) and various fruits.
Salting: Pack something in enough salt, and the salt will draw out moisture, giving you a dry product that will last forever.
Drying: As was mentioned, Scandinavia's cold, dry climate makes drying easy. Also, bread was baked until dry and hard, and stored hanging from the ceiling of your home.
Fermenting: If you use too little salt when salting, you will not make the environment dry enough to kill the bacteria responsible for malolactic fermentation. However, these bacteria will produce lactic acid, which in turn will make the environment unlivable for other bacteria and microbes. Foods preserved like this include brined pickles, sauerkraut and the infamous Swedish Surströmming.
Pickling: Acetic acid or vinegar can preserve vegetables and fish by increasing acidity. This is recent, though.
Smoking: Hanging meat or fish in woodsmoke will kill all microbes, and preserve it  well.
Traditional foods were nearly always boiled, whether they were porridges of various kinds, soups or stews.

Traditionally, how did nordic countries dealt with food supply in a climate so cold and dark before the 20th century where modern food pr…

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